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Boneset is a wetland species for use in restoration and rain gardens.

Boneset is a wetland species for use in restoration and rain gardens. USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 8 October 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Boneset

FIRST IMPRESSIONS:  Eupatorium perfoliatum is a native rhizomatous perennial with multiple upright stems.  The bold leaves are arranged in pairs on the stem.  Each pair is perfoliate with bases that merge together and surround the stem. In late summer large terminal flower clusters emerge. The fragrant white blooms attract butterflies and other pollinators.  This species thrives in sun to part shade and in moist or wet soils. 

HABITAT & HARDINESS:  Eupatorium perfoliatum occurs in eastern North America from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to Florida and Texas.

Plants are indigenous to stream and river banks, alluvial woods, edges of swamps, marshes, bogs, seeps, openings in bottomland forests, wet areas in Blackland prairies and roadside ditches.  This species is generally found in wetlands.

This species is hardy from USDA Zones 4-8.

PLANT DESCRIPTION:  Eupatorium perfoliatum is an upright sturdy perennial that forms clumps of unbranched stems. 

The stems are covered with long white hairs and large bright green leaves.  The leaves are lance shaped, toothed and up to 8” long.  They are opposite with bases that are fused together.  They wrap around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the leaves.

The stems terminate in loose flat topped corymbs from 3-8” across.   Each corymb is composed of many fragrant white disc florets. Blooming begins in late summer and lasts for 1-2 months.

Clusters of tufted achenes form after flowering.

Some plants are noticeably rhizomatous – forming small colonies.

Plants are 3-5’ tall with a 2’ spread.

CULTURAL & MAINTENANCE NEEDSEupatorium perfoliatum prefers full to part sun but will tolerate shadier conditions.   

Plants are not particular about soil type.  They will thrive in sandy, clay or organic soils as long as moisture is constantly present.  This species can even tolerate flooded soils for short times

Plants can be rather tall and lanky but they can be cut back in early spring to promote bushier growth

Plants are pest resistant and foliage is unpalatable to deer and other herbivores.

LANDSCAPE USES:  Eupatorium perfoliatum is a dramatic Accent for a Wildlife Garden or moist Meadow. Plants are also used as Butterfly Nectar Plants or as part of a Grouping or Mass Planting.   This wildflower offers Showy Blooms and provides Erosion Control.  It is useful in Stormwater Retention Basins and Rain Gardens. It can be used in Cottage Gardens, Deer Resistant Plantings, Water-wise Landscapes, Low Maintenance Plantings, Perennial Borders or Shade Gardens.

COMPANION & UNDERSTUDY PLANTS:  Try pairing Eupatorium perfoliatum with Aster novae-angliae, Lobelia cardinalis, Monarda fistulosa, Rudbeckia laciniata, Solidago rugosa ‘Fireworks’, Carex amphibola, Carex radiata, Panicum virgatum or Sorghastrum nutans.

Eupatorium purpureum and Eupatorium fistulosum are possible substitutes as they have comparable cultural requirements but both are taller with pink flowers

TRIVIA:  Flowers attract butterflies, native bees, pollinating flies, wasps and beetles.  Moths of several caterpillars feed on the foliage.  Seed are occasionally eaten by swamp sparrows.

The common name Boneset was probably due to the use of the plant in the treatment of an influenza known as “break bone fever”.  The disease was said to cause pain that was as intense as the pain from a broken bone.  Eupatorium perfoliatum reportedly induced sweating that broke the fever.  This species is sometimes called thoroughwort because it has stems that go “through” pairs of perfoliate leaves.


Height:

3-5 ft

Spread:

3-4 ft

Spacing:

6-8 ft

USDA Hardiness Zone:

4-8

Bloom Color:

White

Eupatorium perfoliatum Characteristics

Exposure

  • Full Sun to Partial Shade

Critter Resistance

  • Deer Resistant

Attracts Wildlife

  • Butterflies
  • Pollinators

Soil Moisture Preference

  • Wet to Moist

Attributes

  • Dried Flower
  • Cut Flower
  • Coastal
  • Clay Soil
  • Naturalizing
  • Bog
  • Long Blooming
  • East-Coast Native

Flowering Months

  • September
  • August
  • July

Foliage Color

  • Green

Juglans nigra Tolerance (Black Walnut)

  • Yes

Salt Tolerance

  • Medium

Interesting Notes:

For more information on this plant, visit the USDA PLANTS Database: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=eupe3


Plants that work well with Eupatorium perfoliatum ''

Thousand-flowered aster Thousand-flowered aster (Boltonia asteroides)
Ohio spiderwort Ohio spiderwort (Tradescantia ohiensis)
Fox sedge Fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)
New Jersey tea New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus)
New England aster New England aster (Aster novae-angliae)
Cardinal flower Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)
Wild bergamot Wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
Green-headed coneflower Green-headed coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata)
Wrinkle-leaf goldenrod Wrinkle-leaf goldenrod (Solidago rugosa 'Fireworks')
Creek sedge Creek sedge (Carex amphibola)
Eastern star sedge Eastern star sedge (Carex radiata)
Switch grass Switch grass (Panicum virgatum)
Indian grass Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans)
Scarlet rose mallow Scarlet rose mallow (Hibiscus coccineus)
Blue flag Blue flag (Iris versicolor)
Southern blue flag Southern blue flag (Iris virginica)
Riddell's goldenrod Riddell's goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)

Substitutions for Eupatorium perfoliatum

Sweet Joe pye weed Sweet Joe pye weed (Eupatorium purpureum)
Joe pye weed Joe pye weed (Eupatorium fistulosum)